Condyloma acuminata during pregnancy
The sexually active individuals will acquire at least one type of HPV infection, frequently with more than one strain, and some people may be repeatedly infected. The patients with HPV infection during pregnancy represent a high-risk group.
HPV 16 and HPV 18 can lead to squamous cell cervical carcinoma, or anal, oro-pharyngeal or penile dysplasia and cancer. We aim to review the clinical implications for the diagnosis and the management of condylomas acuminata associated with pregnancy.
The removal of condylomas during pregnancy, especially the larger ones, can be considered in order to minimise the risks during labor and childbirth; the resolution might be incomplete or poor until pregnancy is complete. Toate persoanele active sexual vor dobândi cel puţin un tip de infecţie cu HPV de-a lungul vieţii, cel mai frecvent cu mai mult de papillomavirus condylomata acuminata singură tuplină, iar unii vor fi infectaţi în repetate rânduri.
Pacienţii cu infecţie cu HPV în timpul sarcinii reprezintă un grup cu risc crescut. Infecţia cu HPV 16 sau HPV 18 poate duce la carcinom de col uterin scuamos celular sau la displazie ori cancer anal, orofaringian sau penian.
În acest articol, ne propunem să revedem implicaţiile clinice pentru diagnosticul şi conduita în condiloamele acuminate descoperite în sarcină. Condiloamele trebuie tratate până la dispariţie în timpul sarcinii, mai ales cele voluminoase, pentru a reduce complicaţiile acestora în timpul travaliului şi al naşterii; dispariţia lor poate fi incompletă în timpul sarcinii.
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Eight out of 10 sexually active people will be infected with more HPV strains 1. More than distinct types of human papillomavirus have been identified, and at least 40 subtypes can infect the genital area.
In most cases, HPV infection is asymptomatic and resolves spontaneously within two years. In persistent infection, low-risk HPV strains can cause benign proliferative lesions, while high-risk strains infection can progress, over at least ten years, to precancerous lesions and malignancies of the cervical uterus, anal, oropharynx and penile tissue 4.
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During pregnancy, external anogenital warts condyloma acuminata are the most common manifestation of HPV infection. During this period, the proliferation and growth of warts accelerate, being frequently followed by a spontaneous regression of lesions in the puerperium 5.
The physiological increase in local estrogen and glycogen in the genitals during pregnancy, in addition to the immune disorders inherent in pregnancy, favors the proliferation of the HPV 5,6.
Condyloma acuminata anogenital warts HPV types 6 or 11 are the etiologic factor for the majority of anogenital warts.
Other types of human papillomavirus that have been isolated in genital warts are HPV 2, 40, 42, 43, 54, usually as co-infections with HPV 6 or HPV types 6 papillomavirus condylomata acuminata 11 have also been associated with conjunctival, nasal, oral and laryngeal warts 7,8. Anogenital warts are frequently multiple, asymmetric and polymorphic and papillomavirus condylomata acuminata occasionally cause bleeding, pruritus, increased vaginal secretions, obstruction of the birth canal and neonatal infections.
These type of skin lesions decrease the quality of life, as they can be intractable to treatment, may regenerate spontaneously or remain in remission for a long period 9.
Hpv condyloma acuminatum, Human papillomavirus viral genome
During pregnancy, condyloma acuminata can have a rapid development of the perineal and anogenital lesions, especially during weeks 12 and 14 of gestation. HPV seems to actively replicate due to the rising estrogen levels, decreased cellular immunity and increased vascularisation and blood flow in the genital area due to pregnancy.
Anogenital warts that develop during pregnancy are usually located near the vaginal opening, cervix and the vaginal wall, and are more difficult to treat because of ulceration and infections risks.
Furthermore, they are fragile and pruriginous and can easily cause bleeding 7, They may sometimes become very large, particularly when new warts develop during pregnancy. Papillomavirus condylomata acuminata have been cases of giant condylomas — also known as Buschke-Löwenstein tumors — reported during pregnancy, that grow to such an extent, that they obstruct the birth canal.
Caesarean delivery is indicated for women who may suffer from labor dystocia or excessive sursa helmintiazei enterobioza în grădină vaginal delivery associated with condyloma acuminata Risk of vertical transmission The transmission of HPV from mother to offspring has been reported by several studies.
The virus may infect the fetus during pregnancy, through transplacental or perinatal transmission, or by nursing after delivery 14, The vertical transmission is due to the microtears in fetal membranes or through the placenta if the mother has genital HPV infection. The risk of transmission of the same HPV type present in the maternal genital tract is four times higher when the umbilical cord blood tests positive for the same HPV The way of delivery vaginal or caesarean section does not seem to influence the neonatal papillomavirus condylomata acuminata rate.
Caesarean delivery may be considered when the birth canal is obstructed, in case of premature rupture of membranes or when high viral load is suspected. Papillomavirus condylomata acuminata should not be restricted if the mother is found to be infected with HPV 10, Generally, the newborn becomes clear of the HPV infection after the first year of life; nevertheless, neonatal anogenital, oral or conjunctival HPV lesions can develop.
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The infection with mucosal HPV 6 and 11 may cause recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in children, which is a rare and severe respiratory disease Therapeutic options There is currently no curative antiviral treatment available for HPV infection. Most treatment options for condyloma acuminata require physical destruction of the infected cells.
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The surgical or medical treatment choice depends on the location, number, dimension, type of wart and on the compliance to treatment. During pregnancy, the treatment options are limited, as the standard systemic treatment is teratogenic 8.
- Hpv condyloma acuminatum, Human papillomavirus viral genome So far, there are about known types of human papilloma viruses but with a better study are about 80, and of these only 10 to 15 are involved in the cancer pathology of cervix.
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The preferred method to treat anogenital warts during pregnancy is the surgical treatment, that consists of electrocautery excision, curettage, scalp excision under general or local anaesthesia, cryotherapy, and using a CO2 laser. Cryotherapy is considered the first line of treatment; it uses nitrous oxide or liquid nitrogen directly on the lesions.
Small lesions can be treated during pregnancy with trichloroacetic acid TCA applied sparingly, with limited efficacy 10, Podofilox® podophyllotoxin and sinecatechins are topical treatment options that should not be used during pregnancy.
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Podophyllotoxin is an antimitotic drug, toxic to the mother, but also teratogenic; it can cause malformations of the ear, heart and extremities of the fetus. Despite the low risk of teratogenicity, the use of imiquimod should be avoided, as the current data are insufficient.